Table 2.

Change in Pulse Wave Velocity After Weight Loss

StudyGroupType of PWV MeasurementBaselineFinalChange
Pulse wave velocity, aortic
 Dengo et al9Energy restricted dietPWV, aortic (m/s)8.33±1.757.06±1.25−1.27±1.06
Control8.18±1.798.83±2.060.65±1.24
 Rider et al8Energy restricted low glycemic index diet or bariatric surgeryPWV, aortic arch (MRI; m/s)10.3±7.210.1±7.7−0.2±4.7*
 Rider et al8Energy restricted low glycemic index diet or bariatric surgeryPWV, ascending aorta to abdominal aorta (MRI; (m/s)5.8±2.05.0±1.0−0.8±1.3*
 Rider et al8Energy restricted low glycemic index diet or bariatric surgeryPWV, descending aorta (MRI; m/s)6.2±8.34.3±1.4−1.9±7.2*
Pulse wave velocity, brachial ankle
 Cooper et al29 SAVE trial (12-mo results)Energy restricted diet+exercisePWV, brachial ankle (m/s)12.05 (9.0, 15.5)11.99 (9.25, 15.25)−0.33 (−140.5, 84.5)
 Figueroa et al18*Energy restricted dietPWV, brachial ankle (m/s)13.88±3.4612.61±1.8−1.30±2.3
Energy restricted diet+exercise (resistance training)13.95±1.313.35±1.01−0.6±0.8
 Hughes et al19 SAVE trial (6-mo results)Energy restricted diet+exercisePWV, brachial ankle (m/s)12.08±1.32−0.12±0.92
 Maeda et al20Energy restricted diet+exercise (aerobic)PWV, brachial ankle (m/s)13.5±2.0612.5±1.72−1.0±1.4*
 Miyaki et al21Energy restricted diet+whole body vibrationPWV, brachial ankle (m/s)13.07±1.9412.0±1.28−1.07±1.2*
 Satoh et al22Energy restricted diet+exercise (achieved >5% weight loss)PWV, brachial ankle (m/s)14.00±3.2213.44±2.8−0.56±1.9*
Energy restricted diet+exercise (achieved <5% weight loss)14.19±2.714.16±2.7−0.03±1.7*
Pulse wave velocity, carotid femoral
 Barinas-Mitchell et al23Energy restricted diet+exercise±OrlistatPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)8.17±0.636.80±0.20−1.37±0.5*
 Blumenthal et al24Energy restricted DASH diet+exercisePWV, carotid femoral (m/s)7.0±1.8
Usual diet control7.7±1.6
 Chakera et al11Energy restricted diet±Rimonabant therapy (clinical decision)PWV, carotid femoral (m/s)10.3±2.29.9±2.4−0.4±1.5*
 Clifton et al25Meal replacementPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)7.43±2.686.18±1.66−1.24±2.11
Energy restricted diet (low fat, high CHO)7.26±3.186.24±1.29−1.02±2.66
 Cooper et al29 SAVE trial (12-mo results)Energy restricted diet+exercisePWV, carotid femoral (m/s)8.19 (5.42, 12.927.78 (5.0, 12.50)−0.026±0.974
 Dengo et al9Energy restricted dietPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)11.55±2.309.68±1.8−1.87±1.38
Control11.76±2.5211.90±2.550.14±1.60
 Figueroa et al18Energy restricted dietPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)11.75±3.3811.25±2.28−0.5±0.95
Energy restricted diet+exercise (resistance training)11.81±1.5711.30±1.12−0.51±0.95
 Howden et al12Energy restricted diet+exercisePWV, carotid femoral (m/s)9.2±2.10.4±1.4
Control9.8±2.30.1±2.0
 Hughes et al19Energy restricted diet+exercisePWV, carotid femoral (m/s)8.8±2.57−0.52±3.03
Keogh et al13Energy restricted diet (33% CHO, 7% saturated fat)PWV, carotid femoral (m/s)9.5±1.39.5±1.40±1.7
Energy restricted diet (60% CHO, 20% fat)8.9±1.09.8±0.50.9±3.8
 Keogh et al14Energy restricted diet (4% CHO, 20% saturated fat)PWV, carotid femoral (m/s)10.7±3.09.9±2.4−0.8±1.8*
Energy restricted diet (46% CHO, <8% saturated fat)11.1±2.99.5±1.5−1.6±1.9*
 Miyaki et al17Energy restricted dietPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)9.79±1.569.18±1.00.60±0.97*
 Miyaki et al21Energy restricted diet + whole body vibrationPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)9.67±2.368.34±0.8−1.33±1.8*
 Nordstrand et al26Energy restricted dietPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)8.7±1.78.5±0.7−0.2±0.97
Energy restricted diet + exercise8.6±1.88.1±0.7−0.6±0.96
 Philippou et al28Energy restricted low GI dietPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)10.3(10.0 to 10.9)9.7 (9.3 to 10.3)−0.4(−1.4 to 0.0)
Energy restricted high GI diet9.9(9.2 to 10.6)9.4 (9.0 to 10.5)−0.3(−0.6 to 0.5)
 Pirro et al27Isocaloric diet low in cholesterol (<200 mg/d)/low saturated fat (5%)PWV, carotid femoral (m/s)8.9±2.08.1±1.9−0.8±1.2*
 Samaras et al16Energy restricted diet and bariatric surgery at 12 wkPWV, carotid femoral (m/s)9.0±1.58.8±1.87−0.2±1.1*
 Wycherley et al15Energy restricted diet (4% CHO, 20% saturated fat)PWV, carotid femoral (m/s)10.7±3.069.3±1.53−1.4±2.1
Energy restricted diet (46% CHO, 30% fat)11.0±2.889.5±2.4−1.5±1.7
Pulse wave velocity, carotid radial
 Bradley et al10Energy restricted diet (20% CHO, 60% fat)PWV, brachial (m/s)8.3±0.68.2±0.7−0.1±0.4*
Energy restricted diet (20% fat, 60% CHO)8.1±1.78.1±1.50.0±1.0*
 Chakera et al11Energy restricted diet±Rimonabant therapy (clinical decision)PWV, brachial (m/s)8.3±1.08.4±1.00.1±0.6*
Pulse wave velocity, femoral ankle
 Figueroa et al18Energy restricted dietPWV, femoral ankle (m/s)10.17±1.199.41±0.69−0.78±0.8
Energy restricted diet+exercise (resistance training)10.32±0.6710.17±0.71−0.15±0.4
 Hughes et al19Energy restricted diet+exercisePWV, femoral ankle (m/s)9.46±1.030.06±0.92
  • DASH indicates dietary approaches to stop hypertension.

  • * Calculated change.

  • Median (interquartile range).