Table 4.

Comparison of Prospective Cohorts

StudyBruneckKORA F3KORA F4SAPHIRPany difference
N812258427401712
Demographic variables
 Age, y62.73±11.1056.16±12.5355.15±12.9951.38±6.00<0.0001
 Female sex, n (%)411 (50.6)1348 (52.2)1451 (53.0)635 (37.1)<0.0001
Metabolic and lifestyle variables
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)87 (10.7)170 (6.6)163 (5.9)54 (3.2)<0.0001
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dL58.71±16.1559.08±17.0556.18±14.4259.69±15.69<0.0001
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL230.00±42.56219.38±39.59216.28±39.09228.80±39.97<0.0001
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg148.27±20.74130.16±19.84121.82±18.32138.84±17.86<0.0001
 Current smoking, n (%)156 (19.6)481 (18.7)489 (17.8)332 (19.4)0.511
 Body mass index, kg/m225.64±3.8427.54±4.5527.44±4.7426.79±4.12<0.0001
HO-1 genotype frequencies
 S/SML35 (4.3)83 (3.2)65 (2.4)39 (2.3)0.001
 MM665 (81.9)2195 (84.9)2345 (85.6)1459 (85.2)
 ML101 (12.4)298 (11.5)316 (11.5)207 (12.1)
 LL11 (1.4)8 (0.3)14 (0.5)7 (0.4)
 Incident CVD events, n (%)132 (16.3)90 (3.5)34 (1.2)70 (4.1)<0.0001
  • Values are given as n (%) or as mean±SD. The S/SML genotype group subsumed subjects whose shorter allele had <23 tandem repeats.

  • CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; and HO-1, heme oxygenase-1.