Table 1.

Summary of the Intervention Studies Included in the Meta-Analysis

StudyPopulationStudy Duration (wk)GroupsCompleted
n
Men
n, (%)
Drop-Outs
n (%)
Baseline WeightFinal WeightWeight LossAge
Barinas-Mitchell et al23Type 2 diabetes mellitus52Energy restricted diet+exercise +Orlistat17NR14 (27)97.0±15.186.9±13−10.1±9.1 (−10.4%)50±2
Energy restricted diet+exercise+placebo21NR101.8±19.392.4±16.4−9.4±11.6 (−9.2%)52±2
Blumenthal et al24
RCT
Overweight or obese unmedicated with Pre or stage 1 hypertensionEnergy restricted DASH diet+exercise46≈31%3 (6)93.9±14.084.5−9.4 (−10.0%)52±10
Usual diet control48≈31%1 (2)92.6±15.094.10.9 (+2.0%)52±9
Bradley et al10Overweight or obese8Energy restricted diet (20% CHO, 60% fat)125 (42)3 (11)97.7±14.490.3±12.9−7.4±8.6 (−7.6%)37±9
Energy restricted diet (20% fat, 60% CHO)124 (33)91.5±11.185.0±11.2−6.5 (−7.1%)41±10
Chakera et al11Obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus24Energy restricted diet±Rimonabant therapy27≈45%2 (7)107.0±21.0104.0±21.0−3±13.3 (−2.8%)57±11
Clifton et al25Overweight with TG >2 mmol/L12Meal replacements2617 (65)7 (21)94.4±12.288.4±11.96.0±4.2 (−6.4%)49±9
Energy restricted diet (low fat, high CHO)2915 (52)4 (12)96.4±12.989.7±12.16.6±3.35 (−6.9%)47±10
Cooper et al2925–45 y Overweight or obese52Energy restricted diet + exercise255≈23%89 (26)92.2±14.985.5±15.1−6.7 (−7.1%)38±6
Dengo et al9
Overweight and obese12Energy restricted diet259 (36)NR84.6±1377.5±11−7.1±7.8 (−8.4%)61±1
RCTControl116 (55)NR91.0±15.990.4±16.3−0.6±10.2 (−0.7%)66±2
Figueroa et al18Overweight or obese postmenopausal women with pre or stage 1 hypertension12Energy restricted diet130 (0)4(9)89.0±15.983.4±16.6−5.6±10.3 (−6.3%)54±4
Energy restricted diet + exercise (resistance training)140 (0)86.7±10.181.9±9.4−4.8±6.2 (−5.5%)54±4
Howden et al12Stage 3–4 CDK+1 or more uncontrolled CVD risk factors52Energy restricted diet+exercise3624 (67)5 (12)92.6±22.5NR−1.8±4.2 (2%)60±10
RCTControl3621 (58)6 (14)92.7±24.1NR0.7±3.7 (0.8%)62±8
Hughes et al1925–45 y, Overweight or obese24Energy restricted diet+exercise272NR67 (20)92.2±1585.7±15−7.0±5.9 (−7.6%)38±6
Keogh et al13Overweight and obese52Energy restricted diet (33% CHO, 7% saturated fat)13≈32%23 (64)91.5±10.5NR−4.6±2.1 (−5%)50±1
Energy restricted diet (60% CHO, 20% fat)97.6±6.1NR−5.5±1.2 (−6%)47±2
Keogh et al14Overweight and obese8Energy restricted diet (4% CHO, 20% saturated fat)52NR5 (9)94.0±15.387.0±13.9−7.5±2.6 (−8%)51±8
Energy restricted diet (46% CHO, <8% saturated fat)47NR3 (6)97.0±14.490.7±13.8−6.2±2.9 (−6.4%)49±8
Maeda et al20Overweight and obese men12Energy restricted diet+exercise (aerobic)1717 (100)NR87.6±10.375.3±9.1−12.3±6.2 (−14.0%)35–63
Miyaki21Premenopausal overweight or obese12Energy restricted diet+whole body vibration120 (0)NR80.5±14.271.8±11.4−8.7±8.5 (−10.8%)42±7
Miyaki et al17Overweight and obese12Energy restricted diet1212 (100)NR88.0±10.480±13.9(−8±8.3) −9.1%45±7
Nordstrand et al26Morbidly obese (BMI >40 or >35 with obesity-related comorbidity)28Energy restricted diet9134 (37)7 (7)137.8±22.4NR−9.4±4.3 (−6.8%)42±10
Energy restricted diet+exercise8832 (36)14 (14)125.2±20.4−6.6±3.5 (−5.3%)45±11
Philippou et al28Men, 35–65 y, with ≥1 CHD risk factor24Energy restricted low GI diet2222 (100)18 (32)NRNR−2.2±3.6NR
Energy restricted high GI diet1616 (100)NRNR−3.0±4.2NR
Pirro et al27Hypercholesterolemic8Isocaloric diet low in cholesterol (<200 mg/d), low saturated fat (5%)35NRNR66.0±11.064.0±11.0−2.0±7.0 (3.0%)58±14
Rider et al8Obese52Energy restricted low glycemic index diet or bariatric surgery27≈24%23 (46)114.0±23.093.0±17.0−21±13.9 (−18.4%)43±9
Samaras et al16Obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance24Energy restricted diet and bariatric surgery at 12 wk148 (47)3 (18)127.5±21.3109.4±18.7−18.1±12.9 (−14.2%)50±10
Satoh et al22Obese12Energy restricted diet + exercise (achieved >5% weight loss)4921 (43)080.2±17.573.8±15.4−6.4±10.6 (−8.0%)53±14
Energy restricted diet + exercise (achieved <5% weight loss)11750 (43)77.5±16.277.7±17.30.2±10.7 (0.3%)54±14
Wycherley et al15Overweight or obese52Energy restricted diet (4% CHO, 20% saturated fat)268 (31)31 (54)94.2±16.3NR−14.9±10.7 (−16%)50±9
Energy restricted diet (46% CHO, 30% fat)239 (39)38 (62)97.5±12.9NR−11.5±7.2 (−12%)50±7
  • BMI indicates body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DASH, dietary approaches to stop hypertension; NR, not reported; and RCT, randomized controlled trials.

  • *Median (interquartile range).

  • Range.