Glycosaminoglycan Neutralization in Coagulation Control
The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparin are important anticoagulants that inhibit clot formation through interactions with antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. Unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and heparin-derived drugs are often the main treatments used clinically to handle coagulatory disorders. A wide range of proteins have been reported to bind and neutralize these GAGs to promote clot formation. Such neutralizing proteins are involved in a variety of other physiological processes, including inflammation, transport, and signaling. It is clear that these interactions are important for the control of normal coagulation and influence the efficacy of heparin and heparin-based therapeutics. In addition to neutralization, the anticoagulant activities of GAGs may also be regulated through reduced synthesis or by degradation. In this review, we describe GAG neutralization, the proteins involved, and the molecular processes that contribute to the regulation of anticoagulant GAG activity.
- Received March 26, 2018.
- Accepted April 5, 2018.
- © 2018 The Authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.