High-Mobility Group Box 1 From Hypoxic Trophoblasts Promotes Endothelial Microparticle Production and Thrombophilia in Preeclampsia
Objective—Thrombophilia is a major complication in preeclampsia, a disease associated with placental hypoxia and trophoblast inflammation. Preeclampsia women are known to have increased circulating microparticles that are procoagulant, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to understand the mechanism connecting placental hypoxia, circulating microparticles, and thrombophilia.
Approach and Results—We analyzed protein markers on plasma microparticles from preeclampsia women and found that the increased circulating microparticles were mostly from endothelial cells. In proteomic studies, we identified HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1), a proinflammatory protein, as a key factor from hypoxic trophoblasts in stimulating microparticle production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Immunodepletion or inhibition of HMGB1 in the conditioned medium from hypoxic human trophoblasts abolished the endothelial microparticle-stimulating activity. Conversely, recombinant HMGB1 stimulated microparticle production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The microparticles from recombinant HMGB1–stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells promoted blood coagulation and neutrophil activation in vitro. Injection of recombinant HMGB1 in pregnant mice increased plasma endothelial microparticles and promoted blood coagulation. In preeclampsia women, elevated placental HMGB1 expression was detected and high levels of plasma HMGB1 correlated with increased plasma endothelial microparticles.
Conclusions—Our results indicate that placental hypoxia-induced HMGB1 expression and release from trophoblasts are important mechanism underlying increased circulating endothelial microparticles and thrombophilia in preeclampsia.
- Received November 21, 2017.
- Accepted March 26, 2018.
- © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.