CaMKII (Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II) in Mitochondria of Smooth Muscle Cells Controls Mitochondrial Mobility, Migration, and Neointima Formation
Objective—The main objective of this study is to define the mechanisms by which mitochondria control vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and impact neointimal hyperplasia.
Approach and Results—The multifunctional CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) in the mitochondrial matrix of VSMC drove a feed-forward circuit with the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) to promote matrix Ca2+ influx. MCU was necessary for the activation of mitochondrial CaMKII (mtCaMKII), whereas mtCaMKII phosphorylated MCU at the regulatory site S92 that promotes Ca2+ entry. mtCaMKII was necessary and sufficient for platelet-derived growth factor–induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. This effect was dependent on MCU. mtCaMKII and MCU inhibition abrogated VSMC migration and mitochondrial translocation to the leading edge. Overexpression of wild-type MCU, but not MCU S92A, mutant in MCU−/− VSMC rescued migration and mitochondrial mobility. Inhibition of microtubule, but not of actin assembly, blocked mitochondrial mobility. The outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase Miro-1 promotes mitochondrial mobility via microtubule transport but arrests it in subcellular domains of high Ca2+ concentrations. In Miro-1−/− VSMC, mitochondrial mobility and VSMC migration were abolished, and overexpression of mtCaMKII or a CaMKII inhibitory peptide in mitochondria (mtCaMKIIN) had no effect. Consistently, inhibition of mtCaMKII increased and prolonged cytosolic Ca2+ transients. mtCaMKII inhibition diminished phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and myosin light chain, leading to reduced focal adhesion turnover and cytoskeletal remodeling. In a transgenic model of selective mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition in VSMC, neointimal hyperplasia was significantly reduced after vascular injury.
Conclusions—These findings identify mitochondrial CaMKII as a key regulator of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake via MCU, thereby controlling mitochondrial translocation and VSMC migration after vascular injury.
- Received November 29, 2017.
- Accepted March 12, 2018.
- © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.