Extracellular and Intracellular Cyclophilin A, Native and Post-Translationally Modified, Show Diverse and Specific Pathological Roles in Diseases
CypA (cyclophilin A) is a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein with peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity. Because of its highly abundant level in the cytoplasm, most studies have focused on the roles of CypA as an intracellular protein. However, emerging evidence suggests an important role for extracellular CypA in the pathogenesis of several diseases through receptor (CD147 or other)-mediated autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. In this review, we will discuss the shared and unique pathological roles of extracellular and intracellular CypA in human cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the evolving role of post-translational modifications of CypA in the pathogenesis of disease is discussed. Finally, recent studies with drugs specific for extracellular CypA show its importance in disease pathogenesis in several animal models and make extracellular CypA a new therapeutic target.
- Received December 24, 2017.
- Accepted March 20, 2018.
- © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.