Cre/lox Studies Identify Resident Macrophages as the Major Source of Circulating Coagulation Factor XIII-A
Objective—To establish the cellular source of plasma factor (F)XIII-A.
Approach and Results—A novel mouse floxed for the F13a1 gene, FXIII-Aflox/flox (Flox), was crossed with myeloid- and platelet-cre–expressing mice, and cellular FXIII-A mRNA expression and plasma and platelet FXIII-A levels were measured. The platelet factor 4-cre.Flox cross abolished platelet FXIII-A and reduced plasma FXIII-A to 23±3% (P<0.001). However, the effect of platelet factor 4-cre on plasma FXIII-A was exerted outside of the megakaryocyte lineage because plasma FXIII-A was not reduced in the Mpl−/− mouse, despite marked thrombocytopenia. In support of this, platelet factor 4-cre depleted FXIII-A mRNA in brain, aorta, and heart of floxed mice, where FXIII-Apos cells were identified as macrophages as they costained with CD163. In the integrin αM-cre.Flox and the double copy lysozyme 2-cre.cre.Flox crosses, plasma FXIII-A was reduced to, respectively, 75±5% (P=0.003) and 30±7% (P<0.001), with no change in FXIII-A content per platelet, further consistent with a macrophage origin of plasma FXIII-A. The change in plasma FXIII-A levels across the various mouse genotypes mirrored the change in FXIII-A mRNA expression in aorta. Bone marrow transplantation of FXIII-A+/+ bone marrow into FXIII-A−/− mice both restored plasma FXIII-A to normal levels and replaced aortic and cardiac FXIII-A mRNA, while its transplantation into FXIII-A+/+ mice did not increase plasma FXIII-A levels, suggesting that a limited population of niches exists that support FXIII-A-releasing cells.
Conclusions—This work suggests that resident macrophages maintain plasma FXIII-A and exclude the platelet lineage as a major contributor.
- Received February 24, 2017.
- Accepted May 25, 2017.
- © 2017 The Authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.