Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression in Macrophages Promotes Development of Atherosclerosis
Objective—Atherosclerotic lesions contain hypoxic areas, but the pathophysiological importance of hypoxia is unknown. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a key transcription factor in cellular responses to hypoxia. We investigated the hypothesis that HIF-1α has effects on macrophage biology that promotes atherogenesis in mice.
Approach and Results—Studies with molecular probes, immunostaining, and laser microdissection of aortas revealed abundant hypoxic, HIF-1α–expressing macrophages in murine atherosclerotic lesions. To investigate the significance of macrophage HIF-1α, Ldlr−/− mice were transplanted with bone marrow from mice with HIF-1α deficiency in the myeloid cells or control bone marrow. The HIF-1α deficiency in myeloid cells reduced atherosclerosis in aorta of the Ldlr−/− recipient mice by ≈72% (P=0.006). In vitro, HIF-1α–deficient macrophages displayed decreased differentiation to proinflammatory M1 macrophages and reduced expression of inflammatory genes. HIF-1α deficiency also affected glucose uptake, apoptosis, and migratory abilities of the macrophages.
Conclusions—HIF-1α expression in macrophages affects their intrinsic inflammatory profile and promotes development of atherosclerosis.
- Received June 13, 2013.
- Accepted July 4, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.