Probucol-Oxidized Products, Spiroquinone and Diphenoquinone, Promote Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Mice
Objective—Oxidized products of probucol, spiroquinone and diphenoquinone, were shown to increase cell cholesterol release and plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by inhibiting degradation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. We investigated whether these compounds enhance reverse cholesterol transport in mice.
Approach and Results—Spiroquinone and diphenoquinone increased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 protein (2.8- and 2.6-fold, respectively, P<0.01) and apolipoprotein A-I–mediated cholesterol release (1.4- and 1.4-fold, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) in RAW264.7 cells. However, diphenoquinone, but not spiroquinone, enhanced cholesterol efflux to HDL (+12%, P<0.05), whereas both increased ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 protein, by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. When given orally to mice, both compounds significantly increased plasma HDL-cholesterol, by 19% and 20%, respectively (P<0.05), accompanied by an increase in hepatic and macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 but not ATP-binding cassette transporter G1. We next evaluated in vivo reverse cholesterol transport by injecting RAW264.7 cells labeled with 3H-cholesterol intraperitoneally into mice. Both spiroquinone and diphenoquinone increased fecal excretion of the macrophage-derived 3H-tracer, by 25% and 28% (P<0.01 and P<0.05), respectively. spiroquinone/diphenoquinone did not affect fecal excretion of HDL-derived 3H-cholesterol, implying that macrophage-to-plasma was the most important step in spiroquinone/diphenoquinone-mediated promotion of in vivo reverse cholesterol transport. Finally, spiroquinone significantly reduced aortic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice when compared with the vehicle.
Conclusions—Spiroquinone and diphenoquinone increase functional ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in both the macrophages and the liver, elevate plasma HDL-cholesterol, and promote overall reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. These compounds are promising as therapeutic reagents against atherosclerosis.
- Received August 20, 2015.
- Accepted January 21, 2015.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.