Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Regulates Revascularization in Chronic Ischemia
Potential Impact on the Development of Coronary Collateral Circulation
Objective—Revascularization is an essential process to compensate for cardiac underperfusion and, therefore, preserves cardiac function in the face of chronic ischemic injury. Recent evidence suggested a vital role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in cardiac protection after ischemia. This study was designed to determine whether ALDH2 regulates chronic ischemia−induced angiogenesis and to explore the underlying mechanism involved. Moreover, the clinical impact of the ALDH2 mutant allele on the development of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) was evaluated.
Approach and Results—Mice limb ischemia was performed. Compared with wild-type, ALDH2 deletion significantly reduced perfusion recovery, small artery and capillary density, and increased muscle atrophy in this ischemic model. In vitro, ALDH2-knockdown reduced proliferation, migration and hypoxia triggered endothelial tube formation of endothelial cells, the effects of which were restored by ALDH2 transfection. Further examination revealed that ALDH2 regulated angiogenesis possibly through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor pathways. To further discern the role of ALDH2 deficiency in the function of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells, cross bone marrow transplantation was performed between wild-type and ALDH2-knockout mice. However, there was no significant improvement for wild-type bone marrow transplantation into knockout mice. ALDH2 genotyping was screened in 139 patients with chronic total occlusion recruited to Zhongshan Hospital (2011.10–2014.4). Patients with poor CCC (Rentrop 0–1; n=51) exhibited a higher frequency of the AA genotype than those with enriched CCC (Rentrop 2–3; n=88; 11.76% versus 1.14%; P=0 0.01). However, the AA group displayed less enriched CCC frequency in Logistic regression model when compared with the GG group (odds ratio=0.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.009–0.701; P=0 0.026). Furthermore, serum vascular endothelial growth factor level tended to be lower in patients with ALDH2 mutation.
Conclusions—This study demonstrated that ALDH2 possesses an intrinsic capacity to regulate angiogenesis via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor. Patients with ALDH2-deficient genotype displayed a higher risk of developing poor CCC. Therapeutic individualization based on ALDH2 allele distribution may thus improve the therapeutic benefit, especially in the East Asian decedents.
- Received June 4, 2015.
- Accepted July 30, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.