Histone Deacetylases and Cardiometabolic Diseases
Cardiometabolic disease, emerging as a worldwide epidemic, is a combination of metabolic derangements leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors are linked through epigenetic mechanisms to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease. Post-translational modifications of histone tails, including acetylation and deacetylation, epigenetically alter chromatin structure and dictate cell-specific gene expression patterns. The histone deacetylase family comprises 18 members that regulate gene expression by altering the acetylation status of nucleosomal histones and by functioning as nuclear transcriptional corepressors. Histone deacetylases regulate key aspects of metabolism, inflammation, and vascular function pertinent to cardiometabolic disease in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. Histone deacetylases also likely play a role in the metabolic memory of diabetes mellitus, an important clinical aspect of the disease. Understanding the molecular, cellular, and physiological functions of histone deacetylases in cardiometabolic disease is expected to provide insight into disease pathogenesis, risk factor control, and therapeutic development.
- Received March 31, 2015.
- Accepted July 1, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.