Heritability of Biomarkers of Oxidized Lipoproteins
Twin Pair Study
Objective—To determine whether biomarkers of oxidized lipoproteins are genetically determined. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a heritable risk factor and carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL).
Approach and Results—We measured oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B–containing lipoprotein (OxPL-apoB), Lp(a), IgG, and IgM autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes in 386 monozygotic and dizygotic twins to estimate trait heritability (h2) and determine specific genetic effects among traits. A genome-wide linkage study followed by genetic association was performed. The h2 (scale: 0–1) for Lp(a) was 0.91±0.01 and for OxPL-apoB 0.87±0.02, which were higher than physiological, inflammatory, or lipid traits. h2 of IgM malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes were 0.69±0.04, 0.67±0.05, and 0.80±0.03, respectively, and for IgG malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes 0.62±0.05, 0.52±0.06, and 0.53±0.06, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the major apo(a) isoform and OxPL-apoB (R=−0.49; P<0.001) and Lp(a) (R=−0.48; P<0.001) and OxPL-apoB was modestly correlated with Lp(a) (ρ=0.57; P<0.0001). The correlation in major apo(a) isoform size was concordant (R=1.0; P<0.001) among monozygotic twins but not dizygotic twins (R=0.40; P=0.055). Lp(a) and OxPL-apoB shared genetic codetermination (genetic covariance, ρG=0.774±0.032; P=1.09×10−38), although not environmental determination (environmental covariance, ρE=0.081±0.15; P=0.15). In contrast, Lp(a) shared environmental but not genetic codetermination with autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein and copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes. Sib-pair genetic linkage of the Lp(a) trait revealed that single nucleotide polymorphism rs10455872 was significantly associated with OxPL-apoB after adjusting for Lp(a).
Conclusions—OxPL-apoB and other biomarkers of oxidized lipoproteins are highly heritable cardiovascular risk factors that suggest novel genetic origins of atherothrombosis.
- Received January 12, 2015.
- Accepted April 14, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.