Histone Methyltransferase SET1 Mediates Angiotensin II–Induced Endothelin-1 Transcription and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice
Objective—Endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor derived from vascular endothelium. Elevated endothelin-1 levels are observed in a host of cardiovascular pathologies including cardiomyopathy. The epigenetic mechanism responsible for endothelin-1 induction in these pathological processes remains elusive.
Approach and Results—We report here that induction of endothelin-1 expression in endothelial cells by angiotensin II (Ang II) was accompanied by the accumulation of histone H3K4 trimethylation, a prominent histone modification for transcriptional activation, on the endothelin-1 promoter. In the meantime, Ang II stimulated the expression and the occupancy of Suv, Ez, and Trithorax domain 1 (SET1), the mammalian histone H3K4 trimethyltransferase, on the endothelin-1 promoter, both in vitro and in vivo. SET1 was recruited to the endothelin-1 promoter by activating protein 1 (c-Jun/c-Fos) and synergized with activating protein 1 to activate endothelin-1 transcription in response to Ang II treatment. Knockdown of SET1 in endothelial cells blocked Ang II–induced endothelin-1 synthesis and abrogated hypertrophy of cultured cardiomyocyte. Finally, endothelial-specific depletion of SET1 in mice attenuated Ang II–induced pathological hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis.
Conclusions—Our data suggest that SET1 epigenetically activates endothelin-1 transcription in endothelial cells, thereby contributing to Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy. As such, screening of small-molecule compound that inhibits SET1 activity will likely offer a new therapeutic solution to the treatment of cardiomyopathy.
- Received March 12, 2014.
- Accepted March 16, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.