Impairment of Wound Healing in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Influences Circulating MicroRNA Patterns via Inflammatory Cytokines
Objective—MicroRNAs (miRNA/miR) are stably present in body fluids and are increasingly explored as disease biomarkers. Here, we investigated influence of impaired wound healing on the plasma miRNA signature and their functional importance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Approach and Results—miRNA array profiling identified 41 miRNAs significantly deregulated in diabetic controls when compared with patients with diabetes mellitus–associated peripheral arterial disease and chronic wounds. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction validation confirmed decrease in circulating miR-191 and miR-200b levels in type 2 diabetic versus healthy controls. This was reverted in diabetic subjects with associated peripheral arterial disease and chronic wounds, who also exhibited higher circulating C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokine levels compared with diabetic controls. miR-191 and miR-200b were significantly correlated with C-reactive protein or cytokine levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Indeed, proinflammatory stress increased endothelial- or platelet-derived secretion of miR-191 or miR-200b. In addition, dermal cells took up endothelial-derived miR-191 leading to downregulation of the miR-191 target zonula occludens-1. Altered miR-191 expression influenced angiogenesis and migratory capacities of diabetic dermal endothelial cells or fibroblasts, respectively, partly via its target zonula occludens-1.
Conclusions—This study reports that (1) inflammation underlying nonhealing wounds in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus influences plasma miRNA concentrations and (2) miR-191 modulates cellular migration and angiogenesis via paracrine regulation of zonula occludens-1 to delay the tissue repair process.
- Received December 3, 2012.
- Accepted March 18, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.