Sleep Apnea Is Independently Associated With Peripheral Arterial Disease in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos
Objective—Sleep apnea (SA) has been linked with various forms of cardiovascular disease, but little is known about its association with peripheral artery disease (PAD) measured using the ankle–brachial index. This relationship was evaluated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Approach and Results—We studied 8367 Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants who were 45 to 74 years of age. Sleep symptoms were examined with the self-reported Sleep Health Questionnaire. SA was assessed using an in-home sleep study. Systolic blood pressure was measured in all extremities to compute the ankle–brachial index. PAD was defined as ankle–brachial index <0.90 in either leg. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between moderate-to-severe SA, defined as apnea–hypopnea index ≥15, and the presence of PAD. Analyses were adjusted for covariates. The prevalence of PAD was 4.7% (n=390). The mean apnea–hypopnea index was significantly higher among adults with PAD compared with those without (11.1 versus 8.6 events/h; P=0.046). After adjusting for covariates, moderate-to-severe SA was associated with a 70% increase in the odds of PAD (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–2.5; P=0.0152). This association was not modified by sex (P=0.8739). However, there was evidence that the association between moderate-to-severe SA and PAD varied by Hispanic/Latino background (P<0.01). Specifically, the odds were stronger in Mexican (adjusted odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–6.2) and in Puerto Rican Americans (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.97–4.2) than in other backgrounds.
Conclusions—Moderate-to-severe SA is associated with higher odds of PAD in Hispanic/Latino adults.
- Received September 12, 2014.
- Accepted January 16, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.