Maternal High-Fat Diet Exaggerates Atherosclerosis in Adult Offspring by Augmenting Periaortic Adipose Tissue-Specific Proinflammatory Response
Objective—Maternal obesity elicits offspring’s metabolic disorders via developmental modifications of visceral adipose tissue; however, its effect on atherogenesis remains undefined. Perivascular adipose tissue has recently been implicated in vascular remodeling and vasoreactivity. We hypothesize that developmental modifications of perivascular adipose tissue by maternal high-fat diet (HFD) exposure promotes atherosclerosis in adult offspring.
Approach and Results—Eight-week-old female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed an HFD or normal diet (ND) during gestation and lactation. Offspring were fed a high-cholesterol diet from 8 weeks of age. Twenty-week-old male offspring of HFD-fed dams (O-HFD) showed a 2.1-fold increase in atherosclerotic lesion of the entire aorta compared with those of ND-fed dams (O-ND). Although mRNA expressions of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and accumulation of macrophages in epididymal white adipose tissue were less in O-HFD than in O-ND, thoracic periaortic adipose tissue (tPAT) showed an exaggerated inflammatory response in O-HFD. Intra-abdominal transplantation of tPAT from 8-week-old O-HFD alongside the distal abdominal aorta exaggerated atherosclerosis development of the infrarenal aorta in recipient apolipoprotein E-deficient mice compared with tPAT from O-ND (210%, P<0.01). Although macrophage accumulation was rarely detected in tPAT of 8-week-old offspring, mRNA expression and protein levels of macrophage colony–stimulating factor were markedly elevated in O-HFD (2.3-fold, 3.3-fold, respectively, P<0.05), suggesting that increased macrophage colony–stimulating factor expression contributes to the augmented accumulation of macrophages, followed by the enhanced proinflammatory response.
Conclusions—Our findings demonstrate that maternal HFD exaggerates atherosclerosis development in offspring by augmenting tPAT-specific inflammatory response proceeded by an increased expression of macrophage colony–stimulating factor.
- Received September 27, 2014.
- Accepted January 2, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.