Re-Evaluation of the Anticoagulant Properties of High-Density Lipoprotein
Objective—This study was conducted to resolve the striking controversy between our previous report that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) enhances activated protein C (APC)/protein S anticoagulant actions and a subsequent, contradicting report that HDL lacks this activity.
Approach and Results—When fresh HDL preparations from 2 laboratories were subjected to Superose 6 column chromatography, fractions containing HDL-enhanced APC:protein S anticoagulant actions in clotting assays, thereby validating our previous report. Moreover, the ability of HDL to enhance the anticoagulant actions of APC:protein S was neutralized by anti-apoAI antibodies, further indicating that the activity is because of HDL particles and not because of contaminating phospholipid vesicles. Density gradient subfractionation studies of HDL showed that large HDL subfractions (densities between 1.063 and 1.125 g/mL) contained the APC:protein S–enhancing activity. Fresh HDL stored at 4°C gradually lost its anticoagulant enhancing activity for 14 days, indicating moderate instability in this activity of purified HDL.
Conclusions—These studies conclusively demonstrate that freshly prepared HDL fractions possess anticoagulant activity. Fractions from Superose 6 columns that contain HDL reproducibly enhance APC:protein S anticoagulant activity, consistent with the hypothesis that HDL has antithrombotic activity and with the observation that low HDL levels are found in male venous thrombosis patients. Understanding the basis for this activity could lead to novel therapeutic approaches to regulate venous thrombosis.
- Received November 10, 2014.
- Accepted December 17, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.