Effect of Weight Loss on Pulse Wave Velocity
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Objective—To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials involving adults, to determine the effect of weight loss induced by energy restriction with or without exercise, antiobesity drugs or bariatric surgery on pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured at all arterial segments.
Approach and Results—A systematic search of Pubmed (1966 to 2014), EMBASE (1947 to 2014), MEDLINE (1946 to 2014), and the Cochrane Library (1951 to 2014) was conducted and the reference lists of identified articles were searched to find intervention trials (randomized/nonrandomzsed) that aimed to achieve weight loss and included PWV as an outcome. The search was restricted to human studies. Two independent researchers extracted the data. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis version 2 using random effects analysis. A total of 22 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis and 20 studies (3 randomized controlled trials), involving 1259 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. The standardized mean difference for the overall effect of weight loss on PWV measured at all sites was −0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.41, −0.24; P=0.0001). Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (standardized mean difference, −0.35; 95% confidence interval, −0.44, −0.26; P=0.0001; 16 studies) and brachial ankle PWV (standardized mean difference, −0.48; 95% confidence interval, −0.78, −0.18; P=0.002; 5 studies) were improved with weight loss. Meta-regression showed that change in blood pressure was a predictor of change in PWV (P<0.01).
Conclusion—Modest weight loss (mean 8% of initial body weight) achieved with diet and lifestyle measures improved PWV. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that weight loss may reduce PWV, although future research is required.
- Received August 24, 2014.
- Accepted October 27, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.