Cysteinyl Leukotriene 1 Receptors as Novel Mechanosensors Mediating Myogenic Tone Together With Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors
Objective—Myogenic vasoconstriction is mediated by vascular smooth muscle cells of resistance arteries sensing mechanical stretch. Angiotensin II AT1 receptors and in particular AT1BRs in murine vascular smooth muscle cells have been characterized as mechanosensors that cannot fully account for myogenic vasoconstriction observed. Therefore, we aimed at uncovering novel vascular mechanosensors by expression profiling and functional characterization of candidate proteins.
Approach and Results—Analyzing myogenic tone of isolated murine mesenteric arteries of AT1A and AT1B receptor double gene-deficient (AT1A/1B−/−) mice ex vivo, we observed a decreased myogenic tone at high intraluminal pressures and an unexpected hyper-reactivity at low intraluminal pressures because of upregulation of cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptors (CysLT1Rs). Pharmacological blockade of CysLT1Rs with pranlukast significantly reduced myogenic tone not only in AT1A/1B−/− but also in wild-type arteries. In wild-type arteries, additional blockade of angiotensin II AT1 receptors with candesartan resulted in an additive reduction of myogenic tone. Furthermore, calcium imaging experiments were performed with fura-2–loaded human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing CysLT1Rs and with isolated mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypo-osmotically induced membrane stretch provoked calcium transients that were significantly reduced by pranlukast. Incubations of isolated mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells with the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton had no effect. Furthermore, the Gq/11-protein inhibitor YM 254890 profoundly reduced myogenic tone to the same extent as induced by the application of pranlukast plus candesartan.
Conclusions—Here, we identify a novel, hitherto unappreciated role of CysLT1Rs in vascular regulation. We identified CysLT1Rs as novel mechanosensors in the vasculature involved in myogenic vasoconstriction. Moreover, our findings suggest that myogenic tone is determined by AT1 and CysLT1 receptors acting together as mechanosensors via Gq/11-protein activation.
- Received April 30, 2014.
- Accepted November 4, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.