Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Inhibits Angiogenic Signaling by Uncoupling Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2-αVβ3 Integrin Cross Talk
Objective—Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates angiogenesis via effects on extracellular matrix proteolysis and cell adhesion. However, no previous study has implicated PAI-1 in controlling vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. We tested the hypothesis that PAI-1 downregulates VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) activation by inhibiting a vitronectin-dependent cooperative binding interaction between VEGFR-2 and αVβ3.
Approach and Results—We studied effects of PAI-1 on VEGF signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PAI-1 inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells grown on vitronectin, but not on fibronectin or collagen. PAI-1 inhibited the binding of VEGFR-2 to β3 integrin, VEGFR-2 endocytosis, and intracellular signaling pathways downstream of VEGFR-2. The anti-VEGF effect of PAI-1 was mediated by 2 distinct pathways, one requiring binding to vitronectin and another requiring binding to very low-density lipoprotein receptor. PAI-1 inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and pharmacological inhibition of PAI-1 promoted collateral arteriole development and recovery of hindlimb perfusion after femoral artery interruption.
Conclusions—PAI-1 inhibits activation of VEGFR-2 by VEGF by disrupting a vitronectin-dependent proangiogenic binding interaction involving αVβ3 and VEGFR-2. These results broaden our understanding of the roles of PAI-1, vitronectin, and endocytic receptors in regulating VEGFR-2 activation and suggest novel therapeutic strategies for regulating VEGF signaling.
- plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
- vascular endothelial growth factor A
- very low-density lipoprotein receptor
- Received April 9, 2014.
- Accepted October 25, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.