Aberrant Hetero-Disulfide Bond Formation by the Hypertriglyceridemia-Associated p.Gly185Cys APOA5 Variant (rs2075291)
Objective—Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) is a low-abundance plasma protein that modulates triacylglycerol homeostasis. Gene transfer studies were undertaken in apoa5 (−/−) mice to define the mechanism underlying the correlation between the single-nucleotide polymorphism c.553G>T in APOA5 and hypertriglyceridemia.
Approach and Results—Adeno-associated virus (AAV) 2/8–mediated gene transfer of wild-type apoA-V induced a dramatic lowering of plasma triacylglycerol in apoa5 (−/−) mice, whereas AAV2/8-Gly162Cys apoA-V (corresponding to the c.553G>T single-nucleotide polymorphism: rs2075291; p.Gly185Cys when numbering includes signal sequence) had a modest effect. Characterization studies revealed that plasma levels of wild-type and G162C apoA-V in transduced mice were similar and within the physiological range. Fractionation of plasma from mice transduced with AAV2/8-G162C apoA-V indicated that, unlike wild-type apoA-V, >50% of G162C apoA-V was recovered in the lipoprotein-free fraction. Nonreducing SDS-PAGE immunoblot analysis provided evidence that G162C apoA-V present in the lipoprotein-free fraction, but not that portion associated with lipoproteins, displayed altered electrophoretic mobility consistent with disulfide-linked heterodimer formation. Immunoprecipitation followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of human plasma from subjects homozygous for wild-type APOA5 and c.553G>T APOA5 revealed that G162C apoA-V forms adducts with extraneous plasma proteins including fibronectin, kininogen-1, and others.
Conclusions—Substitution of Cys for Gly at position 162 of mature apoA-V introduces a free cysteine that forms disulfide bonds with plasma proteins such that its lipoprotein-binding and triacylglycerol-modulation functions are compromised.
- Received March 31, 2014.
- Accepted July 21, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.