Common and Distinctive Pathogenetic Features of Arteriovenous Malformations in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia 1 and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia 2 Animal Models
Objective—Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a genetic disorder characterized by visceral and mucocutaneous arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Clinically indistinguishable hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 1 and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 2 are caused by mutations in ENG and ALK1, respectively. In this study, we have compared the development of visceral and mucocutaneous AVMs in adult stages between Eng- and Alk1-inducible knockout (iKO) models.
Approach and Results—Eng or Alk1 were deleted from either vascular endothelial cells (ECs) or smooth muscle cells in adult stages using Scl-CreER and Myh11-CreER lines, respectively. Latex perfusion and intravital spectral imaging in a dorsal skinfold window chamber system were used to visualize remodeling vasculature during AVM formation. Global Eng deletion resulted in lethality with visceral AVMs and wound-induced skin AVMs. Deletion of Alk1 or Eng in ECs, but not in smooth muscle cells, resulted in wound-induced skin AVMs. Visceral AVMs were observed in EC-specific Alk1-iKO but not in Eng-iKO. Intravital spectral imaging revealed that Eng-iKO model exhibited more dynamic processes for AVM development when compared with Alk1-iKO model.
Conclusions—Both Alk1- and Eng-deficient models require a secondary insult, such as wounding, and ECs are the primary cell type responsible for the pathogenesis. However, Alk1 but not Eng deletion in ECs results in visceral AVMs.
- Alk1 protein, mouse
- arteriovenous malformations
- endoglin protein, mouse
- endothelial cells
- myocytes, smooth muscle
- telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic
- Received May 13, 2014.
- Accepted July 20, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.