Dietary Intake of Calcium and Phosphorus and Serum Concentration in Relation to the Risk of Coronary Artery Calcification in Asymptomatic Adults
Objective—The current data regarding the association between calcium and phosphorus and cardiovascular disease are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore whether dietary calcium and phosphorus intake and their serum levels are associated with the incidence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) using cardiac computed tomography in asymptomatic participants without a history of chronic kidney disease or cardiovascular disease.
Approach and Results—A cross-sectional study was performed in 23 652 Korean participants (40.8±7.3 years, male 83.5%) without chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) or clinically overt cardiovascular disease, who underwent cardiac computed tomographic estimation of CAC scores as part of a general health checkup in addition to completing a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. We assessed the relationship of dietary calcium and phosphorus intake and serum levels with CAC scores using both multivariate-adjusted Tobit models and multinomial logistic regression models. Neither dietary calcium nor phosphorus intake was consistently associated with CAC scores. However, the serum calcium, phosphorus, and calcium–phosphorus product levels were significantly associated with the CAC score ratios. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest quartiles of serum calcium, phosphorus, and calcium–phosphorus product levels to the lowest quartiles were 2.09 (1.56–2.80), 3.4 (2.61–4.43), and 4.07 (3.08–5.36), respectively (P for trend <0.001).
Conclusions—Elevated serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and calcium–phosphorus product, but not dietary consumption, are associated with increased CAC scores. Our findings should be explored in further research.
- Received February 8, 2014.
- Accepted May 27, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.