Sequence Variation in Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Gene Is Associated With Survival and Progressive Coronary Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease
Objective—Sequence variations in the gene(s) encoding vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), the enzyme target of warfarin, have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease in the general population. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a prevalent form of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. We tested the hypothesis that the VKORC1 rs8050894 CC genotype would be associated with mortality and progression of CAC ≤4 years.
Approach and Results—This study is an observational, prospective study of 167 individuals with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease. Survival ≤4 years was assessed in all participants, and CAC progression was measured in a subset of 86 patients. Participants with the CG/GG genotype of VKORC1 had higher baseline CAC scores (median score, 112 versus 299; P=0.036). Of those 86 patients who had a 4-year CAC score, those with the CG/GG genotype had an increased risk of progressive CAC (adjusted for age, diabetes mellitus, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hypertension) compared with those with the CC genotype. Four-year mortality risk was 4 times higher for individuals with the CG/GG genotypes compared with individuals with the CC genotype (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–12.5; P=0.02), adjusted for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, estimated glomerular filtration rate, baseline CAC, and hypertension.
Conclusions—Patients with the CG/GG genotype of VKORC1 had a higher risk of CAC progression and a poorer survival. These data provide new perspectives on the potential extrahepatic role of VKORC1 in individuals with chronic kidney disease.
- Received January 8, 2014.
- Accepted May 7, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.