Redox Regulation of 14-3-3zeta Controls Monocyte Migration
Objective—Metabolic stress primes monocytes for accelerated chemokine-mediated adhesion, migration, and recruitment into vasculature lesions by increasing actin remodeling. The mechanism linking metabolic stress to accelerated actin turnover and enhanced monocyte migration was not known. We tested the hypothesis that in metabolically primed monocytes, the acceleration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1–induced chemotaxis is mediated by the hyperactivation of cofilin.
Approach and Results—Metabolic priming was induced by exposing human THP-1 monocytes to diabetic conditions, that is, human native low-density lipoprotein plus high glucose concentrations. In healthy monocytes, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced the phosphorylation and inactivation of cofilin. This response was completely blocked in metabolically primed monocytes but restored by overexpression of the thiol transferase, glutaredoxin 1. Cofilin kinase, LIM kinase 1, and cofilin phosphatase, Slingshot-1L, were not affected by metabolic stress. However, metabolic priming increased 3.8-fold the S-glutathionylation of the Slingshot-1L-binding protein 14-3-3zeta, resulting in its caspase-dependent degradation. Glutaredoxin 1 overexpression inhibited low-density lipoprotein plus high glucose–induced S-glutathionylation and degradation of 14-3-3zeta. The C25S mutant of 14-3-3zeta was resistant to both S-glutathionylation and degradation induced by low-density lipoprotein plus high glucose. Overexpression of the C25S mutant restored monocyte chemoattractant protein-1–induced cofilin phosphorylation and prevented accelerated migration of metabolically stressed monocytes, suggesting that loss of 14-3-3zeta increases the pool of free Slingshot-1L phosphatase, thereby preventing the phosphorylation and deactivation of cofilin in response to chemokine activation.
Conclusions—By preventing the inactivation of cofilin, metabolic stress–induced degradation of 14-3-3zeta promotes the conversion of blood monocytes into a hypermigratory, proatherogenic phenotype.
- Received December 30, 2013.
- Accepted April 24, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.