25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels Do Not Predict Changes in Carotid Arterial Stiffness
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Objective—To evaluate the impact of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on longitudinal changes in arterial stiffness.
Approach and Results—Distensibility coefficient and Young’s elastic modulus of the right common carotid artery were evaluated at baseline and after a mean (SD) of 9.4 (0.5) years in 2580 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were evaluated using multivariable linear regression and analysis of covariance. At baseline, participants were 60.1 (9.4) years old (54% female; 26% black, 20% Hispanic, 14% Chinese). Mean annualized 25(OH)D was <20 ng/dL in 816 participants, and PTH was >65 pg/dL in 285 participants. In cross-sectional analyses, low 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL) was not associated with stiffer arteries after adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors (P>0.4). PTH >65 pg/mL was associated with stiffer arteries after adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors, other than systolic blood pressure (distensibility coefficient: β=−2.4×10−4 mm Hg−1, P=0.003; Young’s elastic modulus: β=166 mm Hg, P=0.01); however, after adjustment for systolic blood pressure, these associations no longer were statistically significant. Longitudinal arterial stiffening was associated with older age (P<0.0001), higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.008), and use of antihypertensive medications (P<0.006), but not with 25(OH)D or PTH (both P>0.1).
Conclusions—Carotid arterial stiffness is not associated with low 25(OH)D concentrations. Cross-sectional associations between arterial stiffness and high PTH were attenuated by systolic blood pressure. After nearly a decade of follow-up, neither baseline PTH nor 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with progression of carotid arterial stiffness.
- Received September 30, 2013.
- Accepted December 11, 2013.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.