Coenzyme Q10 Promotes Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux by Regulation of the Activator Protein-1/MicroRNA-378/ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G1–Signaling Pathway
Objective—Recent studies have shown the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and atherogenesis. We hypothesized that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may increase macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by regulating miRNA expression that contributes to the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Approach and Results—CoQ10 treatment suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein–induced macrophage foam cell formation by ameliorating the binding of activator protein-1 to the putative promoter region of miRNA-378 primary transcript, thus decreasing the miRNA-378 level and enhancing the ATP-binding cassette transporter G1–mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein. Subsequently, the axis of activator protein-1/miRNA-378/ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 cholesterol efflux was confirmed in peritoneal macrophages isolated from CoQ10-treated apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. Finally, CoQ10 consumption promoted macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and inhibited the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice.
Conclusions—This study identified activator protein-1/miRNA-378/ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 as a novel cascade for CoQ10 in facilitating macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro and in vivo. Our data thus imply that both CoQ10 and miRNA-378 are promising candidates for atherosclerosis prevention and treatment.
- Received November 12, 2013.
- Accepted March 17, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.