Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor–Related Protein-1
Role in the Regulation of Vascular Integrity
Low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein-1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling receptor that is widely expressed. In the liver, LRP1 plays an important role in regulating the plasma levels of blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) by mediating its uptake and subsequent degradation. fVIII is a key plasma protein that is deficient in hemophilia A and circulates in complex with von Willebrand factor. Because von Willebrand factor blocks binding of fVIII to LRP1, questions remain on the molecular mechanisms by which LRP1 removes fVIII from the circulation. LRP1 also regulates cell surface levels of tissue factor, a component of the extrinsic blood coagulation pathway. This occurs when tissue factor pathway inhibitor bridges the fVII/tissue factor complex to LRP1, resulting in rapid LRP1-mediated internalization and downregulation of coagulant activity. In the vasculature LRP1 also plays protective role from the development of aneurysms. Mice in which the lrp1 gene is selectively deleted in vascular smooth muscle cells develop a phenotype similar to the progression of aneurysm formation in human patient, revealing that these mice are ideal for investigating molecular mechanisms associated with aneurysm formation. Studies suggest that LRP1 protects against elastin fiber fragmentation by reducing excess protease activity in the vessel wall. These proteases include high-temperature requirement factor A1, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and membrane associated type 1-matrix metalloproteinase. In addition, LRP1 regulates matrix deposition, in part, by modulating levels of connective tissue growth factor. Defining pathways modulated by LRP1 that lead to aneurysm formation and defining its role in thrombosis may allow for more effective intervention in patients.
- Received October 4, 2013.
- Accepted November 6, 2013.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.