Interleukin 1 Receptor 1 and Interleukin 1β Regulate Megakaryocyte Maturation, Platelet Activation, and Transcript Profile During Inflammation in Mice and Humans
Objective—Interleukin 1 Receptor 1 (IL1R1) and its ligand, IL1β, are upregulated in cardiovascular disease, obesity, and infection. Previously, we reported a higher level of IL1R1 transcripts in platelets from obese individuals of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) but its functional effect in platelets has never been described. Additionally, IL1β levels are increased in atherosclerotic plaques and in bacterial infections. The aim of this work is to determine whether IL1β, through IL1R1, can activate platelets and megakaryocytes to promote atherothrombosis.
Approach and Results—We found that IL1β-related genes from platelets, as measured in 1819 FHS participants, were associated with increased body mass index, and a direct relationship was shown in wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet. Mechanistically, IL1β activated NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways in megakaryocytes. IL1β, through IL1R1, increased ploidy of megakaryocytes to 64 N or more by 2-fold over control. IL1β increased agonist-induced platelet aggregation by 1.2-fold with thrombin and 4.2-fold with collagen. IL1β increased adhesion to both collagen and fibrinogen, and heterotypic aggregation by 1.9-fold over resting. High-fat diet–enhanced platelet adhesion was absent in IL1R1−/− mice. Wild-type mice infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis had circulating heterotypic aggregates (1.5-fold more than control at 24 hours and 6.2-fold more at 6 weeks) that were absent in infected IL1R1−/− and IL1β−/− mice.
Conclusions—In summary, IL1R1- and IL1β-related transcripts are elevated in the setting of obesity. IL1R1/IL1β augment both megakaryocyte and platelet functions, thereby promoting a prothrombotic environment during infection and obesity; potentially contributing to the development of atherothrombotic disease.
- Received September 10, 2013.
- Accepted January 3, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.