Effect of Mediterranean Diet With and Without Weight Loss on Apolipoprotein B100 Metabolism in Men With Metabolic Syndrome
Objective—To assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome.
Approach and Results—The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North American isoenergetic control diet for 5 weeks, followed by an isoenergetic MedDiet for an additional 5 weeks under full-feeding conditions (MedDiet−WL). Participants next underwent a 20-week supervised WL program under free-living conditions (−10.2±2.9% body weight; P<0.01) and finally consumed the MedDiet (5 weeks) under weight-stabilizing feeding conditions (MedDiet+WL). In vivo kinetic of apoB100 was assessed in the fasted state at the end of the 3 controlled diets using a bolus of D3-leucine. Compared with the control diet, MedDiet−WL reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apoB100 pool size (−14.2%, P<0.01) primarily through an increase in LDL-apoB100 fractional catabolic rate (+30.4%, P=0.02) and increased LDL particle size (P<0.01) but had no effect on very-LDL (VLDL)-apoB100 pool size or triglyceride concentrations, despite a significant increase in VLDL-apoB100 fractional catabolic rate (+25.6%; P=0.03). MedDiet+WL had no further effect on LDL-apoB100 pool size and fractional catabolic rate but further increased LDL particle size and reduced VLDL-apoB100 pool size versus the control diet primarily through an increase in VLDL-apoB100 fractional catabolic rate (+30.7%; P<0.01).
Conclusions—Consumption of MedDiet increases LDL size and reduces LDL-apoB100 concentrations primarily by increasing the catabolism of LDL even in the absence of WL in men with metabolic syndrome. MedDiet seems to have a trivial effect on VLDL concentrations and kinetics unless accompanied by significant WL.
- Received July 9, 2013.
- Accepted November 13, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.