Plasma S100A8/A9 Correlates With Blood Neutrophil Counts, Traditional Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Disease in Middle-Aged Healthy Individuals
Objective—The S100 alarmins A8, A9, and A8/A9, secreted by activated neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. S100A8/A9 has previously been linked to atherogenesis and cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated whether S100A8, A9, and A8/A9 correlate with carotid artery disease and CV risk in apparently healthy individuals.
Approach and Results—We measured baseline S100A8, A9, and A8/A9 in 664 individuals aged 63 to 68 years, with no previous history of CV disease, randomly selected from the Malmö Diet and Cancer population cohort. We examined the correlations between S100 proteins and circulating cell populations, plasma cytokines, carotid artery disease, and incidence of CV events during a median follow-up period of 16.2 years. We found that plasma S100A8/A9 concentrations are positively influenced by circulating neutrophil numbers, smoking, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and low-density lipoprotein. High-density lipoprotein was negatively associated with S100A8/A9. S100A8/A9 and the neutrophil counts were positively correlated with intima-media area in the common carotid artery, independently of age, sex, and CV risk factors. S100A8/A9 and circulating neutrophils presented similar associations with the incidence of coronary events (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per 1 SD: 1.28 [1.03–1.59] and 1.26 [1.04–1.53], respectively) and CV death (1.34 [1.06–1.71] and 1.59 [1.33–1.90], respectively). These relationships were mainly supported by strong associations in women, which were independent of traditional risk factors. There were no independent relationships among S100A8, S100A9, and CV disease.
Conclusions—Our study supports the value of S100A8/A9 as a potentially important link among neutrophils, traditional CV risk factors, and CV disease.
- Received August 23, 2013.
- Accepted October 23, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.