Characterization of Cardiovascular Involvement in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Families
Objective—Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder with involvement of the skin, the retina, and the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular involvement is mainly characterized by mineralization and fragmentation of elastic fibers of blood vessels and premature atherosclerosis. We conducted an ultrasound study to investigate the cardiovascular phenotype and to propose recommendations for the management of patients with PXE and heterozygous ABCC6 mutation carriers.
Approach and Results—Thirty-two patients, 23 carriers, and 28 healthy volunteers underwent cardiac and vascular ultrasound studies. Cardiac imaging revealed left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with PXE with a significantly prolonged deceleration time and lower septal early diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus compared with controls. Carriers also demonstrated significantly prolonged deceleration time. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly increased in patients with PXE when compared with carriers and controls. Vascular imaging revealed a high prevalence of peripheral artery disease in both patients and carriers and a significantly higher carotid intima-media thickness compared with controls.
Conclusions—The results of this study clearly demonstrate impaired left ventricular diastolic function, impairment of the elastic properties of the aorta, and a high prevalence of peripheral artery disease in patients with PXE. Carriers also seem to exhibit a cardiovascular phenotype with mainly mild diastolic dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. Increased awareness for cardiovascular events in both patients and heterozygous carriers is warranted.
- carotid intima-media thickness
- diastolic heart failure
- pseudoxanthoma elasticum
- vascular stiffness
- Received September 18, 2012.
- Accepted August 9, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.