Pharmacological Inhibition of Phospholipase D Protects Mice From Occlusive Thrombus Formation and Ischemic Stroke—Brief Report
Objective—We recently showed that mice lacking the lipid signaling enzyme phospholipase (PL) D1 or both PLD isoforms (PLD1 and PLD2) were protected from pathological thrombus formation and ischemic stroke, whereas hemostasis was not impaired in these animals. We sought to assess whether pharmacological inhibition of PLD activity affects hemostasis, thrombosis, and thrombo-inflammatory brain infarction in mice.
Approach and Results—Treatment of platelets with the reversible, small molecule PLD inhibitor, 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI), led to a specific blockade of PLD activity that was associated with reduced α-granule release and integrin activation. Mice that received FIPI at a dose of 3 mg/kg displayed reduced occlusive thrombus formation on chemical injury of carotid arteries or mesenterial arterioles. Similarly, FIPI-treated mice had smaller infarct sizes and significantly better motor and neurological function 24 hours after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. This protective effect was not associated with major intracerebral hemorrhage or prolonged tail bleeding times.
Conclusions—These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological PLD inhibition might provide a safe therapeutic strategy to prevent arterial thrombosis and ischemic stroke.
- Received April 24, 2013.
- Accepted June 29, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.