Plasma Dimethylglycine and Risk of Incident Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris
Objective—Dimethylglycine is linked to lipid metabolism, and increased plasma levels may be associated with adverse prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. We evaluated the relationship between plasma dimethylglycine and risk of incident acute myocardial infarction in a large prospective cohort of patients with stable angina pectoris, of whom approximately two thirds were participants in a B-vitamin intervention trial. Model discrimination and reclassification when adding plasma dimethylglycine to established risk factors were obtained. We also explored temporal changes and the test–retest reliability of plasma dimethylglycine.
Approach and Results—Four thousand one hundred fifty patients (72% men; median age 62 years) were included. Plasma dimethylglycine was associated with several traditional coronary artery disease risk factors. During a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 343 (8.3%) patients experienced an acute myocardial infarction. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for acute myocardial infarction was 1.95 (1.42–2.68; P<0.001) when comparing plasma dimethylglycine quartile 4 to 1 in a Cox regression model adjusted for age, sex, and fasting status. Adjusting for traditional coronary artery disease risk factors only slightly modified the estimates, which were particularly strong among nonsmokers and among patients with serum triglyceride or apolipoprotein B100 levels ≤median (P for interaction=0.004, 0.004, and 0.03, respectively). Plasma dimethylglycine improved discrimination and reclassification and had high test–retest reliability.
Conclusions—Plasma dimethylglycine is independently related to incident acute myocardial infarction and enhances risk prediction in patients with stable angina pectoris. Our results motivate further studies on the relationship between 1-carbon metabolism and atherothrombosis. A potential interplay with lipid and energy metabolism merits particular attention.
- Received January 14, 2013.
- Accepted May 16, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.