Current Genetics and Epigenetics of Smoking/Tobacco-Related Cardiovascular Disease
Genetic and epigenetic factors are of great importance in cardiovascular biology and disease. Tobacco-smoking, one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors, is itself partially determined by genetic background and is associated with altered epigenetic patterns. This could render the genetics and epigenetics of smoking-related cardiovascular disease a textbook example of environmental epigenetics and modern approaches to multimodal data analysis. A pronounced association of smoking-related methylation patterns in the F2RL3 gene with prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease has recently been described. Nonetheless, surprisingly little concrete knowledge on the role of specific genetic variants and epigenetic modifications in the development of cardiovascular diseases in people who smoke has been accumulated. Beyond the current knowledge, the present review briefly outlines some chief challenges and priorities for moving forward in this field.
- Received October 5, 2012.
- Accepted March 11, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.