Targeting Platelet GPIbβ Reduces Platelet Adhesion, GPIb Signaling, and Thrombin Generation and Prevents Arterial Thrombosis
Objective—The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-V-IX complex regulates the adhesion, activation, and procoagulant activity of platelets. We previously reported that RAM.1, a rat monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of mouse GPIbβ, diminished adhesion of platelets and chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the human GPIb-IX complex to von Willebrand factor under flow conditions. Here, we further evaluated the functional importance of GPIbβ by studying the impact of RAM.1 on GPIb-mediated platelet responses and in vitro and in vivo thrombus formation.
Approach and Results—We show that RAM.1 dramatically reduced GPIb-mediated filopodia extension of chinese hamster ovary GPIb-IX cells after adhesion to von Willebrand factor. RAM.1 also reduced filopodia extension and GPIb-mediated Ca2+ signaling after adhesion of mouse platelets to von Willebrand factor. RAM.1 inhibited thrombin generation in platelet-rich plasma without impairing phosphatidylserine exposure. In addition, RAM.1 reduced thrombus formation after perfusion of mouse whole blood over collagen in a shear-dependent manner. This effect was confirmed in vivo, because injection of F(ab)′2 fragments of RAM.1 diminished thrombus formation induced by laser beam injury of mesenteric arterioles and forceps injury of the abdominal aorta. In contrast, RAM.1 F(ab)′2 did not prolong the tail-bleeding time or increase the volume of blood lost.
Conclusions—These findings are the first evidence that targeting a subunit other than GPIbα can lead to an antithrombotic effect via the GPIb-V-IX complex. This could represent an alternative way to reduce thrombus formation with a minor impact on hemostasis.
- Received January 11, 2013.
- Accepted March 12, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.