Diesel Exhaust Induces Systemic Lipid Peroxidation and Development of Dysfunctional Pro-Oxidant and Proinflammatory High-Density Lipoprotein
Objective—To evaluate whether exposure to air pollutants induces oxidative modifications of plasma lipoproteins, resulting in alteration of the protective capacities of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).
Approach and Results—We exposed apolipoprotein E–deficient mice to diesel exhaust (DE) at ≈250 µg/m3 for 2 weeks, filtered air (FA) for 2 weeks, or DE for 2 weeks, followed by FA for 1 week (DE+FA). DE led to enhanced lipid peroxidation in the brochoalveolar lavage fluid that was accompanied by effects on HDL functionality. HDL antioxidant capacity was assessed by an assay that evaluated the ability of HDL to inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation estimated by DCF fluorescence. HDL from DE-exposed mice exhibited 23 053±2844 relative fluorescence units, higher than FA-exposed mice (10 282±1135 relative fluorescence units, P<0.001) but similar to the HDL from DE+FA-exposed mice (22 448±3115 relative fluorescence units). DE effects on HDL antioxidant capacity were negatively correlated with paraoxonase enzymatic activity, but positively correlated with levels of plasma 8-isoprostanes, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, liver malondialdehyde, and accompanied by perturbed HDL anti-inflammatory capacity and activation of 5-lipoxygenase pathway in the liver.
Conclusions—DE emissions induced systemic pro-oxidant effects that led to the development of dysfunctional HDL. This may be 1 of the mechanisms by which air pollution contributes to enhanced atherosclerosis.
- Received September 27, 2012.
- Accepted February 10, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.