Association of the Thrombomodulin Gene c.1418C>T Polymorphism With Thrombomodulin Levels and With Venous Thrombosis Risk
Objective—To investigate the association of the THBD c.1418C>T polymorphism, which encodes for the replacement of Ala455 by Val in thrombomodulin (TM), with venous thromboembolism (VTE), plasma soluble (s) TM, and activated protein C levels. In addition, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) isolated from 100 umbilical cords were used to analyze the relation between this polymorphism and THBD mRNA and TM protein expression.
Approach and Results—The THBD c.1418C>T polymorphism was genotyped in 1173 patients with VTE and 1262 control subjects. Levels of soluble TM and activated protein C were measured in 414 patients with VTE (not on oral anticoagulants) and 451 controls. HUVECs were genotyped for the polymorphism and analyzed for THBD mRNA and TM protein expression and for the ability to enhance protein C activation by thrombin. The 1418T allele frequency was lower in patients than in controls (P<0.001), and its presence was associated with a reduced VTE risk, reduced soluble TM levels, and increased circulating activated protein C levels (P<0.001). In cultured HUVEC, the 1418T allele did not influence THBD expression but was associated with increased TM in cell lysates, increased rate of protein C activation, and reduced soluble TM levels in conditioned medium.
Conclusions—The THBD 1418T allele is associated with lower soluble TM, both in plasma and in HUVEC-conditioned medium, and with an increase in functional membrane–bound TM in HUVEC, which could explain the increased activated protein C levels and the reduced VTE risk observed in individuals carrying this allele.
- Received November 9, 2012.
- Accepted March 8, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.