G-Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase Interacting Protein-1 Mediates Intima Formation by Regulating Vascular Smooth Muscle Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Migration
Objective—The G-protein–coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) is a scaffold protein that is important for phospholipase Cγ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling induced by angiotensin II and epidermal growth factor. Because GIT1 regulates signaling by several vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth factors, we hypothesized that intima formation would be inhibited by GIT1 depletion.
Approach and Results—Complete carotid ligation was performed on GIT1 wild-type and knockout (KO) mice. We compared changes between GIT1 wild-type and KO mice in carotid vascular remodeling, VSMC proliferation, and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Our data demonstrated that GIT1 deficiency significantly decreased intima formation after carotid ligation as a result of both reduced VSMC proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. To confirm the effects of GIT1 in vitro, we performed proliferation and apoptosis assays in VSMC. In mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MASM), we found that the growth rate and [3H]-thymidine incorporation of the GIT1 KO MASM were significantly decreased compared with the wild-type MASM. Cyclin D1, which is a key cell cycle regulator, was significantly decreased in GIT1 KO cells. Serum deprivation of GIT1 KO MASM increased apoptosis 3-fold compared with wild-type MASM. Treatment of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with GIT1 small interfering RNA impaired cell migration. Both phospholipase Cγ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling were required for GIT1-dependent VSMC proliferation and migration, whereas only phospholipase Cγ was involved in GIT1-mediated VSMC apoptosis.
Conclusions—GIT1 is a novel mediator of vascular remodeling by regulating VSMC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis through phospholipase Cγ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways.
- extracellular signal–regulated kinase-1/2
- G-protein–coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1
- intima formation
- phospholipase Cγ
- vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis
- vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation
- Received December 27, 2011.
- Accepted January 19, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.