Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum Phosphate, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Total Mortality in Older Men
Objective—We have examined the association between serum phosphate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes and total mortality in older men.
Approach and Results—A prospective study of 3381 men, aged 60 to 79 years, without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke followed up for an average 11 years during which there were 605 major CVD events (fatal coronary heart disease and nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and CVD death) and 984 total deaths. ALP but not serum phosphate was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and overall CVD events which persisted after adjustment for CVD risk factors and markers of inflammation and after exclusion of men with chronic kidney disease (adjusted hazard ratio per SD, 1.19 [1.05, 1.34]; P=0.007 and 1.10 [1.01, 1.21]; P=0.04). In contrast, serum phosphate was only associated with increased CVD mortality owing to noncoronary heart disease or stroke causes (adjusted hazard ratio per SD, 1.35 [1.01, 1.83]; P=0.04). Both raised phosphate and ALP were associated with significantly increased total mortality after full adjustment and exclusion of men with chronic kidney disease.
Conclusion—ALP but not serum phosphate is associated with coronary heart disease risk in elderly men. High levels of ALP and serum phosphate are both associated with increased total mortality.
- Received November 12, 2012.
- Accepted January 28, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.