Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 Limits the Development of Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor–Null Mice
Objective—Several secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s), including group IIA, III, V, and X, have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis, which led to the clinical testing of A-002 (varespladib), a broad sPLA2 inhibitor for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Group X sPLA2 (Pla2g10) has the most potent hydrolyzing activity toward phosphatidylcholine and is believed to play a proatherogenic role.
Methods and Results—Here, we show that Ldlr–/– mice reconstituted with bone marrow from mouse group X–deficient mice (Pla2g10–/–) unexpectedly display a doubling of plaque size compared with Pla2g10+/+ chimeric mice. Macrophages of Pla2g10–/– mice are more susceptible to apoptosis in vitro, which is associated with a 4-fold increase of plaque necrotic core in vivo. In addition, chimeric Pla2g10–/– mice show exaggerated Th1 immune response, associated with enhanced T-cell infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. Interestingly, overexpression of human Pla2g10 in murine bone marrow cells leads to significant reduction of Th1 response and to 50% reduction of lesion size.
Conclusion—Pla2g10 expression in bone marrow cells controls a proatherogenic Th1 response and limits the development of atherosclerosis. The results may provide an explanation for the recently reported inefficacy of A-002 (varespladib) to treat patients with coronary artery disease. Indeed, A-002 is a nonselective sPLA2 inhibitor that inhibits both proatherogenic (groups IIA and V) and antiatherogenic (group X) sPLA2s. Our results suggest that selective targeting of individual sPLA2 enzymes may be a better strategy to treat cardiovascular diseases.
- Received August 15, 2012.
- Accepted January 2, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.