Donor and Recipient Cell Surface Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Promote Neointimal Formation in Transplant-Associated Arteriosclerosis
Objective—Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis manifests as progressive vascular neointimal expansion throughout the arterial system of allografted solid organs, and eventually compromises graft perfusion and function. Allografts placed in colony stimulating factor (CSF)-1-deficient osteopetrotic (Csf1op/Csf1op) mice develop very little neointima, a finding attributed to impaired recipient macrophage function. We examined how CSF-1 affects neointima-derived vascular smooth muscle cells, tested the significance of CSF-1 expressed in donor tissue, and evaluated the contribution of secreted versus cell surface CSF-1 isoforms in transplant-associated arteriosclerosis.
Methods and Results—CSF-1 activated specific signaling pathways to promote migration, survival, and proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α addition increased CSF-1 and CSF-1 receptor expression, and tumor necrosis factor-α-driven proliferation was blocked by anti-CSF-1 antibody. In a mouse vascular allograft model, lack of recipient or donor CSF-1 impaired neointima formation; the latter suggests local CSF-1 function within the allograft. Moreover, reconstitution of donor or recipient cell surface CSF-1, without secreted CSF-1, restored neointimal formation.
Conclusion—Vascular smooth muscle cells activation, including that mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α, can be driven in an autocrine/juxtacrine manner by CSF-1. These studies provide evidence for local function of CSF-1 in neointimal expansion, and identify CSF-1 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells, particularly cell surface CSF-1 signaling, as a target for therapeutic strategies in transplant-associated arteriosclerosis.
- Received August 2, 2012.
- Accepted October 23, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.