Endogenous IRAK-M Attenuates Postinfarction Remodeling Through Effects on Macrophages and Fibroblasts
Objective—Effective postinfarction repair requires timely suppression of innate immune signals to prevent the catastrophic consequences of uncontrolled inflammation on cardiac geometry and function. In macrophages, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M acts as a functional decoy preventing uncontrolled toll-like receptor /interleukin-1 mediated responses. Our study investigates the role of IRAK-M as a negative regulator of the postinfarction inflammatory response and as a modulator of cardiac remodeling.
Methods and Results—In wild-type mouse infarcts IRAK-M was upregulated in infiltrating macrophages and fibroblasts exhibiting a biphasic response. When compared with wild-type animals, infarcted IRAK-M−/− mice had enhanced adverse remodeling and worse systolic dysfunction; however, acute infarct size was comparable between groups. Adverse remodeling in IRAK-M−/− animals was associated with enhanced myocardial inflammation and protease activation. The protective actions of IRAK-M involved phenotypic modulation of macrophages and fibroblasts. IRAK-M−/− infarcts showed increased infiltration with proinflammatory CD11b+/Ly6Chi monocytes; leukocytes harvested from IRAK-M-null infarcts exhibited accentuated cytokine expression. In vitro, IRAK-M expression was upregulated in cytokine-stimulated murine cardiac fibroblasts and suppressed their matrix-degrading properties without affecting their inflammatory activity.
Conclusion—Endogenous IRAK-M attenuates adverse postinfarction remodeling suppressing leukocyte inflammatory activity, while inhibiting fibroblast-mediated matrix degradation.
- Received January 14, 2012.
- Accepted August 30, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.