Inflammation Modulates Murine Venous Thrombosis Resolution In Vivo
Assessment by Multimodal Fluorescence Molecular Imaging
Objective—Assessment of thrombus inflammation in vivo could provide new insights into deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution. Here, we develop and evaluate 2 integrated fluorescence molecular-structural imaging strategies to quantify DVT-related inflammation and architecture and to assess the effect of thrombus inflammation on subsequent DVT resolution in vivo.
Methods and Results—Murine DVT was created with topical 5% FeCl3 application to thigh or jugular veins (n=35). On day 3, mice received macrophage and matrix metalloproteinase activity fluorescence imaging agents. On day 4, integrated assessment of DVT inflammation and architecture was performed using confocal fluorescence intravital microscopy. Day 4 analyses showed robust relationships among in vivo thrombus macrophages, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran deposition (r>0.70; P<0.01). In a serial 2–time point study, mice with DVT underwent intravital microscopy at day 4 and day 6. Analyses revealed that the intensity of thrombus inflammation at day 4 predicted the magnitude of DVT resolution at day 6 (P<0.05). In a second approach, noninvasive fluorescence molecular tomography-computed tomography was used and detected macrophages within jugular DVT (P<0.05 versus sham controls).
Conclusion—Integrated fluorescence molecular-structural imaging demonstrates that the DVT-induced inflammatory response can be readily assessed in vivo and can inform the magnitude of thrombus resolution.
- Received April 29, 2012.
- Accepted September 6, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.