Regulation of Pattern Recognition Receptors by the Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide 4F
Objective—The apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide 4F favors the differentiation of human monocytes to an anti-inflammatory phenotype and attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses. We investigated the effects of LPS on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway in 4F-differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages.
Methods and Results—Monocyte-derived macrophages were pretreated with 4F or vehicle for 7 days. 4F downregulated cell-surface TLRs (4, 5, and 6) as determined by flow cytometry. 4F attenuated the LPS-dependent upregulation of genes encoding TLR1, 2, and 6 and genes of the MyD88-dependent (CD14, MyD88, TRAF6, interleukin-1 receptor–associated kinase 4, and IKBKB) and MyD88-independent (interferon regulatory factor 3, TANK-binding kinase 1, and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain–containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β) pathways as determined by microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Functional analyses of monocyte-derived macrophages showed that 4F reduced LPS-dependent TLR4 recycling, phosphorylation of IκBα, and activation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB and inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 induced by LPS or lipoteichoic acid. These changes were associated with depletion of cellular cholesterol and caveolin, components of membrane lipid rafts.
Conclusion—These data suggest that disruption of rafts by 4F alters the assembly of TLR–ligand complexes in cell membranes and inhibits proinflammatory gene expression in monocyte-derived macrophages, thus attenuating the responsiveness of macrophages to LPS.
- Received March 30, 2012.
- Accepted August 28, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.