Genotype-Dependent Impairment of Hemoglobin Clearance Increases Oxidative and Inflammatory Response in Human Diabetic Atherosclerosis
Objective—Haptoglobin (Hp) protein is responsible for hemoglobin clearance after intra-plaque hemorrhage. Hp gene exists as Hp-1 and Hp-2 alleles and the phenotypes show important molecular heterogeneity. We tested the hypothesis that hemoglobin clearance may be deficient in diabetic atheroma from patients with Hp2-2, triggering increased oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic patterns compared with controls.
Methods and Results—Forty patients with diabetes mellitus were genotyped and their peripheral plaques compared after atherectomy. Plaque hemorrhage, iron content, hemoglobin-binding protein CD163, and heme-oxygenase-1 were quantified. Oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic patterns were evaluated by measuring myeloperoxidase, interleukin-10, macrophages, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, smooth muscle actin, and plaque neovascularization (CD34/CD31). Plaques with Hp2-2 (n=7) had increased hemorrhage (P<0.005), iron content (P<0.001), and reduced CD163 expression (P<0.002) compared with controls (n=14). Hp2-2 plaques had increased heme-oxygenase-1 protein (P<0.02), myeloperoxidase gene (P<0.05), and protein (P<0.0001). Anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 gene (P<0.04), and protein expressions (P<0.0001) were decreased in Hp2-2. Finally, macrophage (P<0.0001), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P=0.001), smooth muscle actin (P=0.002) scores, and neovessels density (P<0.0001) were increased in Hp2-2.
Conclusion—Genotype-dependent impairment of hemoglobin clearance after intra-plaque hemorrhage is associated with increased oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic response in human diabetic atherosclerosis.
- Received April 23, 2012.
- Accepted August 27, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.