P300/CBP Associated Factor Regulates Nitroglycerin-Dependent Arterial Relaxation by Nε-Lysine Acetylation of Contractile Proteins
Objective—To address the role of epigenetic enzymes in the process of arterial vasorelaxation and nitrate tolerance, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed in the presence or absence of glycerin trinitrate (GTN) and histone deacetylases/histone acetylases modulators.
Methods and Results—In vitro single GTN administration rapidly increased cGMP synthesis and protein Nε-lysine acetylation in rat smooth muscle cells, including myosin light chain and smooth muscle actin. This phenomenon determined a decrease in myosin light chain phosphorylation and actomyosin formation. These effects were abolished by prolonged exposure to GTN and rescued by treatment with trichostatin A. In vivo, adult male rats were treated for 72 hours with subcutaneous injections of GTN alone or in combination with the histone deacetylases inhibitors Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, MS-27–275, or valproic acid. Ex vivo experiments performed on aortic rings showed that the effect of tolerance was reversed by all proacetylation drugs, including the p300/CBP–associated factor activator pentadecylidenemalonate 1b (SPV106). Any response to GTN was abolished by anacardic acid, a potent histone acetylases inhibitor.
Conclusion—This study establishes the following points: (1) GTN treatment increases histone acetylases activity; (2) GTN–activated p300/CBP associated factor increases protein Nε-lysine acetylation; (3) Nε-lysine acetylation of contractile proteins influences GTN–dependent vascular response. Hence, combination of epigenetic drugs and nitroglycerin may be envisaged as a novel treatment strategy for coronary artery disease symptoms and other cardiovascular accidents of ischemic origin.
- Received May 30, 2012.
- Accepted July 7, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.