Angiopoietin-1 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Regulation of Leukocyte Adhesion to Endothelial Cells
Role of Nuclear Receptor-77
Objective—Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs). Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) inhibits this response. Nuclear receptor-77 (Nur77) is a proangiogenic nuclear receptor. In the present study, we assessed the influence of Ang-1 and VEGF on Nur77 expression in ECs, and evaluated its role in Ang-1/VEGF-mediated leukocyte adhesion.
Methods and Results—Expression of Nur77 was evaluated with real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Adhesion of leukocytes to ECs was monitored with inverted microscopy. Nur77 expression or activity was inhibited using adenoviruses expressing dominant-negative form of Nur77, retroviruses expressing Nur77 in the antisense direction, and small interfering RNA oligos. Both Ang-1 and VEGF induce Nur77 expression, by >5- and 30-fold, respectively. When combined, Ang-1 potentiates VEGF-induced Nur77 expression. Ang-1 induces Nur77 through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 pathways. VEGF induces Nur77 expression through the protein kinase D/histone deacetylase 7/myocyte enhancer factor 2 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 pathways. VEGF induces nuclear factor-kappaB transcription factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin expressions, and promotes leukocyte adhesion to ECs. Ang-1 inhibits these responses. This inhibitory effect of Ang-1 disappears when Nur77 expression is disrupted, restoring the inductive effects of VEGF on adhesion molecule expression, and increased leukocyte adhesion to ECs.
Conclusion—Nur77 promotes anti-inflammatory effects of Ang-1, and functions as a negative feedback inhibitor of VEGF-induced EC activation.
- endothelial cells
- leukocyte adhesion
- nuclear receptor-77
- vascular endothelial growth factor
- Received January 19, 2012.
- Accepted May 3, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.