Attenuation of Early Atherogenesis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor–Deficient Mice by Proteasome Inhibition
Objective—Low and nontoxic proteasome inhibition has anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antioxidative effects on vascular cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that low-dose inhibition of the proteasome could provide antiatherogenic protection. The present study investigated the effect of low-dose proteasome inhibition on early lesion formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient mice fed a Western-type diet.
Methods and Results—Male low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient mice, 10 weeks old, were fed a Western-type diet for 6 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of bortezomib or solvent. Bortezomib was injected at a dose of 50 μg/kg body weight. Cholesterol plasma levels were not affected by bortezomib treatment. En face Oil Red O staining of aortae and aortic root cryosections demonstrated significant reduction of atherosclerotic lesion coverage in bortezomib-treated animals. Bortezomib significantly reduced vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and macrophage infiltration as shown by histological analysis. Bortezomib treatment resulted in a significant reduction of superoxide content, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products, serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interleukin-6. Gene expression microarray analysis showed that expressional changes induced by Western-type diet were attenuated by treatment with low-dose bortezomib.
Conclusions—Low-dose proteasome inhibition exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates development of atherosclerotic lesions in low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient mice.
- Received November 4, 2011.
- Accepted April 5, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.